Sunday, 27 September 2009

FalkeEins - more about this blog author - last edit December 2017

I have had a number of articles published on Luftwaffe subjects including a 15-page feature on the Sturmgruppen and a couple of 'Aircraft in Detail' pieces in the old SAM and including two 10-15 page 'Aircraft in Detail' features on the Fw 190.

My feature on Jaguar pilot Alain Mahagne's Desert Storm experiences appeared in the September 2011 issue of Airfix Model World and see the June and July 2014 issues of " Model Aircraft " for my "wilde Sau und Moskito Jagd" feature. This has subsequently been republished by Morton Jessen's Air War Publications as an eArticle in revised and expanded form.

My main interests are WW II aviation, especially the Luftwaffe, although I'm interested in just about any flying object. I grew up on the base at RAF Marham ( my Dad worked on Victors..) and after university I worked in France and Germany before taking up a post at London Gatwick airport with a 'major European airline' in flight dispatch..(primarily B737, F100 and A320 types). I stayed there for eight years. Son no. 2 flies with BA..Liverpool FC fan since 1970

I have worked on the following titles for Erik Mombeek, Lela Presse, Eagle Editions, Red Kite and Classic Chevron at the invitation of Robert Forsyth, either translating or copy-editing or part-authoring.

1. JG 300: A Chronicle of a Fighter Geschwader In the Battle for Germany by Lorant & Goyat  2 vols (Eagle Editions**)

"..The acclaimed unit history in two volumes - according to Rowan Bayliss in Scale Aircraft Modelling features 'some of the most gripping accounts of air combat ever written' - chock full of exciting personal accounts and rare photos. Translated by Neil Page"


2. Barbarossa: The Air Battle July-December 1941 by Christer Bergstrom

"Revised, updated edition of the classic Black Cross- Red Star books at half the price of the Eagles Editions books. Copy-edited by Neil Page"

3. Messerschmitt Me 210 / Me 410 Hornisse (Hornet) by Werner Stocker

"Photographic and production history. Text examines the machinations behind Luftwaffe procurement policy - copy-edited and a section authored by Neil Page"

4. In The Skies Of France A Chronicle Of JG 2 Richthofen Vol 1 1934-1940 by Erik Mombeek

" Vol I of a superb new history of JG 2 Richthofen vividly brought to life through many rare first person accounts.. Translated by Neil Page"

5. Nachtjagd War Diaries Vol 1 An Operational History of the German Night Fighter Force in the West, September 1939 - March 1944 by Dr. Theo Boiten

"Superb new history of the Luftwaffe's night air war. Vivid personal accounts -amounting to around 75 pages of text- translated by Neil Page!"

6. Storming the Bombers A Chronicle of JG 4 The Luftwaffe's 4th Fighter Wing Vol 1 1942-1944 by Erik Mombeeck

"For the first time in English, a mission-by-mission, day-by-day history of the Luftwaffe's fourth fighter wing. Translated by Neil Page. See the author's web-site for ordering"

7. JG 27 in Action: v. 4 (Air Miniatures) by Marek Murawski

"Part IV of the Kagero series devoted to JG 27. Translated accounts by Neil Page"

8. Nachtjagd War Diaries Vol 2 An Operational History of the German Night Fighter Force in the West, April 1944 - May 1945 by Dr. Theo Boiten

"Vol II of Theo Boiten's Nachtjagd War Diaries - moving & dramatic personal accounts by Neil Page!"

9. JG 11 (Air Miniatures) by Marek Murawski

"Probably the best title in this Kagero series on a unit which has received little coverage. Plenty of first person accounts especially translated for this book by Neil Page"

10. Stalingrad - The Air Battle: 1942 through January 1943 by Christer Bergstrom

"Vol II of the new, revised, updated BC-RS. Highly detailed text, proofed, corrected and re-written in English by Neil Page"

11. Focke Wulf FW 190: v. 2 (Monographs) by Krzysztof Janowicz

"Vol II of four produced by Kagero devoted to the Fw 190 - great photos & artwork and a detailed operational history. The majority of the English section was written by Neil Page"

12. Luftwaffe Seaplanes - three volumes (Les hydravions de la Luftwaffe, published by Lela Presse

"..Luftwaffe seaplanes and flying boats played a major role during WW2. Volume I describes the history of the Arado 196, Dornier 18, Heinkel 60 and Heinkel 59 and is replete with photos, colour profiles & technical drawings. The most comprehensive and detailed works yet published on these types. Volume III features nearly 200 pages on the Dornier Do 24. English language photo captions augmented with text extracts translated by Neil Page.."

More info at

13. Curtiss Hawk H-75 by Lionel Persyn (Lela Presse)

"The Curtiss H-75 was among the most effective fighters of the Armée de l'Air during WW 2, highly manoeuvrable & able to take on and beat the Me 109 Dora in combat as the events of 6 November 1939 proved - five Doras of JGr 102 shot down for no losses. It equipped the "crack units" of the French Air Force throughout the Phoney War and the May-June 1940 campaign, achieving a considerable tally of air victories. This book relates the career of the American fighter in France, from the negociations to buy it until its retirement post-war. Features detailed day-by-day coverage of the activities of the various Groupes de Chasse equipped with the Hawk and rare combat accounts, loss and victory lists. Approx 500 photos with detailed English-language captions augmented with translated extracts from the text by Neil Page.."

14. Luftwaffe Gallery series by Erik Mombeeck  - including three "unit specials" on JG 77, JG 26 and the latest release, JG 54 (December 2017). English text by this blog author from original German-language accounts and author Erik Mombeek's French.

15.  Luftwaffe Fighter Aircraft - Profile book No. 6 by Claes Sundin 
" The reader must acknowledge that this book is the result of a team effort - I would like to thank my friend Neil Page (FalkeEins) who is well-known for his expertise in this field.." Reviews here

16.  An as yet unpublished series on Luftwaffe fighters - due in 2018 - TOP Secret!

Some published reviews of my book translations. The latest reviews here are published in the April 2010 issue of Aviation History magazine by (Dr.) Richard Muller.

Published in the November 2009 edition of Aviation News (book translation by Neil Page).  The typo in the IPMS piece below made me chuckle... 'Chris Gross'    

Luftwaffe Sturmgruppen

Aviation Elite Units No. 20
Review by Neil Page

During the spring and summer of 1944 the USAAF daylight strategic bomber offensive over Germany was at its height. The Luftwaffe was forced to evaluate any number of desperate solutions as it sought to counter the massed fleets of B-17 Fortresses and B-24 Liberators pulverizing cities and industry throughout the Reich. In late 1943 Major Günther von Kornatzki -a former Gruppenkommandeur of II./JG52 during the Battle of Britain and married to one of Göring's secretaries- dreamt up the concept of the Sturm fighter. Dare-devil young volunteer Luftwaffe fighter pilots were organised into elite bomber destroyer units (see my article Sturmgruppen 1944-Bomber Destroyers in SAM, March 2001) The Sturmgruppen were to carry out stunning offensive actions in large battle formations flying heavily armed and armoured variants of the latest Focke Wulf 190 fighters. Their mass attacks were flown to within close-range to make certain of a ‘kill’ and their 3 cm cannon were deadly - just a handful of shells was enough to start a fire in a B-17 or B-24. On a number of occasions the Fw 190s of the Sturmgruppen did great execution among the bomber formations – the thirty or so B-24s of the 445th BG shot down on 27 September 1944 representing something of a macabre record during the air war. Fortunately for the US bomber crews, the slow and unwieldy Fw 190s –laden with armor protection for their pilots and encumbered with their heavy cannon– were no match for an omnipresent and massively numerically superior fighter escort and by late 1944 the original Sturm concept –to meet mass with mass– was no longer tenable.
This is another Osprey ‘potboiler’ from John Weal. As usual it is a nice read and constitutes a good introduction to the subject. Yet while I have a certain amount of time for Weal’s skills as a writer, the amount of research behind this volume appears cursory – although sources are admittedly hard to come by. After all – and in fairness - the Lorant/Goyat history of JG 300 published by Eagle Editions – appearing at the same time as Weal’s volume - was some twenty years in the research and writing. As far as Weal's text is concerned the treatment here is adequate; the mission summaries are curtailed and concentrate rather too much on losses with little information on victories or even the bomb group the Sturm units came up against. The story lacks first person accounts to bring the text to life and unfortunately repeats many of the old myths that have grown up around these units – von Kornatzki did not interview volunteers for the Sturmstaffel in his Berlin office. There is reasonable photo content –but no new pictures and a number of inaccurate captions and misidentifications. That is not Oskar Bösch sitting on the wing of his A-6 on P34 – but both Mombeek and Rodeike got that one wrong too. My main criticism is reserved for Weal’s artwork- there are a number of errors eg the well-known ‘schwarze 8’ of Willi Maximowitz (IV./JG 3) did not have a red/yellow spinner, it was black/yellow. Blue 13 does not have the white fuselage band with black wavy line- that was ‘black 13’. The JG 4 emblems are poorly drawn. Gefreiter Wagner’s ‘Weiße 11’ did not have outboard Mk 108's; they were 2cm weapons, the white 11 is incorrect. The profile of Gustav Salffner’s ‘white 6’ is incorrect and the machine did not have outboard Mk 108's either but 2cm weapons. Walter Loos did not serve in IV. (Sturm)/JG 3 but flew the Bf 109G-6 with the Br 21cm rocket launchers in the old IV./JG 3.
The text is inadequate beyond September 1944. The Sturmgruppen had virtually ceased to exist by November 1944, except for II.(Sturm)/JG 300. The story of how this unit – in concert with JG 301- lost ninety fighters over Berlin on 14 January 1945 is incomplete here and there is no information on JG 300’s deployment along the Oder front during February 1945- the Russians closing in fast from the East ensured that combating 8th AF bomber formations was no longer a priority. The last sorties against the bombers were in fact flown on 2 March 1945 and the story of the Sturmgruppen ends there to all intents and purposes… The closing chapter ‘From Sturm to Ramm’ deals with the Sonderkommando Elbe mission of 7 April 1945 - which was not flown by the Sturmgruppen. It was a suicide mission of light, unarmed Bf 109s flown by pilots of little or any combat experience - the antithesis of the Sturm concept. In conclusion, I find it difficult to recommend this wholeheartedly – however it is virtually the only work in English providing an overview of the history of these units and as such should be welcomed.

More Sturmgruppen links here

Wednesday, 16 September 2009

Willi Unger IV./JG 3 - Fw 190 Sturmbock

 IV./JG 3 - Fw  190 Sturmbock deployed briefly to Normandy with the 'Krebs' rocket launcher

The Sturmgruppen 1944 - Bomber Destroyers (Fw 190 Sturmbock)

A brief look at one of my first published articles. Having corresponded with a number of Sturmgruppen veterans, I put together a fifteen-page article for Scale Aircraft Modelling which appeared in Vol 23, no. 1 (March 2001) I also illustrated the feature - never again! To create my rendition of Dahl's Fw 190 I took a scale plan and coloured it in using Micrografx software - five hours work. Like most magazines, SAM pay a pathetic contributors fee, something like £20/page - or at least they did. While I supplied plenty of decent photos for the article the then-editor took it upon himself to go and scan in some additional Bundesarchiv images from books - I knew nothing about it until I saw them in the article.

The Nachtjagd War Diaries by Dr. Theo Boiten (an extract from the text - Karl Johannsen's account of his most memorable sortie - my translation)

A few years ago Dr. Theo Boiten asked me if I wouldn't mind helping out on his Nachtjagd War Diaries project published by Red Kite in 2008. In the end I translated about 65 pages worth of vets accounts including Peter Spoden's moving & eloquent Foreword. When I was finally able to peruse the books I was hugely impressed with the sheer size of the two tomes (total of 750+ pages!) & the evident deep research therein. If pushed I'd say the four or five different font sizes make some of the pages look a little untidy at first glance, but only in places (claims info, text, pic captions, personal account side bars) while I guess Vol II is a touch short on pics (a few too many generic images from but very text heavy. These are really pretty minor league criticisms though. The list of sources, contributors, bibliography and explanation of methodology are eye-opening. Considering there is little or no info out there for 1945 Vol II especially is a superb achievement. The special collectors edition is currently available from publisher Red Kite books with a reprint of the two titles planned for late 2010.

Peter Spoden and Rolf Ebhardt sitting with author Theo Boiten at the launch of the Nachtjagd War Diaries. Standing behind are Rod Mackenzie and Mark Postlethwaite, flanked by the team from The Aviation Bookshop who organised the launch. (Hi Simon!)

Here is one of the lengthy personal accounts that I translated for the book. Written by Karl Johanssen, he describes his most memorable sortie, flown on the night of 14/15 March 1945, when his 'Kutscher' or 'driver', leading nightfighter ace Martin 'Tino' Becker, claimed nine Lancaster bombers shot down (victories 49-57) a Nachtjagd record. Three of Becker's victims were in fact shot down by his crewman Karl Johanssen with his MG 131 rearward facing armament.

"...Our IV Gruppe of Nachtjagdgeschwader 6 was stationed at Kitzingen am Main. Although the aerodrome itself was still unscathed, American Jabos -fighter bombers- were over the field from dawn to dusk. They would have needed some luck hunting out our machines since they were mostly hidden in the nearby woods in camouflaged shelters cut back along a taxi-track of some length. The enemy's bomber formations droned overhead on an almost daily basis to carpet-bomb cities, supply lines and -most importantly - operational ME 262 jet bases. From dawn to dusk we were at an almost constant state of readiness - to evacuate the field should the alarm "Bombenteppich" - carpet bombing ! - be raised. As dusk fell all our machines would return to the airfield, including those operational aircraft that had played 'hide-and-seek' through the day - in other words they had been flown out to smaller hard-to-locate grass strips in the vicinity and hidden from prying eyes. Armourers and flight engineers set about preparing these aircraft for their night sortie. Some possibly required an air-test. There was still a certain amount of time to kill prior to the weather briefing and pre-sortie pep talk. The radio operators busied themselves with the documentation that they required for a sortie - the Y-Linie frequencies, call signs and code letters that were changed on a daily basis - and checked over their radar and radio sets - the FuG X, FuG XVI, SN2, and Naxos direction finding and homing equipment, along with the EiV, the crew intercom - among other tasks. By 18h00 all the crews had gathered at the Gefechtsstand for the weather forecast and mission briefing. For some time now even this activity had taken place 'underground' in the cellar. Long range enemy intruder aircraft operated over the aerodrome almost nightly, lurking in the hope of catching our aircraft landing and taking off. It was imperative to maintain absolute radio silence and the dimmed runway lighting could be flicked on only briefly and sporadically. That evening in the command post we had the feeling that something big was in the offing. Weather conditions were favourable. According to HQ everything pointed to a "dicker Hund" - a maximum effort by the British. The 'weather frog' - Regierungsrat and meterologist - took us through the forecast for the coming night. For the enemy, conditions over north-west France and England -for launching a raid- were good. As far as the territory of the Reich was concerned there were two bands of cloud situated over southern Germany at 1000 to 1500 metres and at around 5,000 metres altitude. The possibilities for diverting to other airfields were discussed. During the early hours mist was likely to form. The Reportage - a land-line network linking all operational night fighter bases - collated the numbers of serviceable aircraft and crews to man them. The meteorologist concluded his report while the Nachrichtenoffizier -the signals officer- gave out the Y-Linie frequencies and key letters for the FuG 25 codes. The Y-Linie was the radio traffic system carrying so-called UKW transmissions over a frequency emanating from the Divisonal command post - information such as the enemy air situation report, location and airfield reports. All too often the enemy jammed even these communications – as they did others. The crews subsequently made their way to the readiness rooms located close to the individual Staffel dispersals. We were now at 'heightened readiness'. Soft gramophone record music played through the loudspeaker network around the aerodrome. Hard-bitten Doppelkopf or Skat players set up their card schools. Radio operators took their code folders and ES signal flare munitions out to their machines. Even outside on the taxiways the various announcements being broadcast could be heard. The music was interrupted once again. The speaker blew into the microphone by way of a test before broadcasting his message; " Achtung Achtung an Alle ! - Attention everybody! Prepare for cockpit readiness. Heavy enemy formations reported over Holland, currently in Grid Square MN, heading 160 degrees! Ende - Message ends!" A few more bars of sentimental music played through the speakers before we heard the order, "Everyone to cockpit readiness!". The next announcement was broadcast even before all of the crews had clambered up into their machines; " All aircraft to take off, heading radio beacon Dachs!". For those of my comrades that might not perhaps have realised what was happening flares were fired off; green-red-green. The plaintive refrain of "Komm zurück" started up in the loudspeakers although the noise of engines being run up drowned out the melody while the first machines were already taxiing out to the runway takeoff point. The Kommandeur remained in the command post until the last possible moment, which was why our Ju88 - coded 'MF' - was one of the last to move off. Even as we taxied out to our takeoff point the radio receiver was being tuned into the frequencies so that we could eavesdrop on the reports coming in on the enemy formation and the orders being transmitted to the night fighters. We lined up into the wind on the showing of two white lights. An airman with a lamp was on duty at the threshold. After identifying our aircraft code letters, we were given the green light - all-clear to take off. The roar of the two Jumo 213 engines rose to a crescendo and then we were airborne. The faintly lit airfield faded into the darkness behind us. All our radio and radar sets were switched on and working. We were now reliant on them for all the information that we could glean with regard to the incoming raid. When I say 'we' I'm referring to the pilot and the radar operator sitting in front and the two rearward-facing crew members - the flight engineer perched on the cockpit entry/exit hatch and myself the radio operator and gunner sitting on the 'high chair'. As soon as we had climbed through the first cloud layer at around 2,000 metres we swung onto heading 260 in the direction of Funkfeuer -radio beacon- Dachs. Sporadic transmissions were coming through on the Y-Linie. After some twenty minutes flying time we were over the Dachs beacon and received the following report "de v1s-50 RP,RQ 080 - vmzRR 3"; in plain language it meant that the enemy bombers were at 5,000 metres altitude, heading 80 degrees in Grid Squares RP and RQ and that the target was probably RR 3, in the Mainz sector. We immediately took up a new heading, banking onto course RR and could see the first target markers and explosions some distance off. As luck would have it we were too late arriving over the target. The 'fireworks' had just ended which led us to conclude that this had been a feint, a raid mounted by Mosquitos, intended to lure the night fighters away from the bomber streams. We swung around homewards while I pricked up my ears, trying to decipher through the jamming where the main body of the raid might be. The interference was so heavy on all frequencies that we learnt nothing. At the same time I was staring fixedly at the Naxos intercept radar screen which could home in on the emissions of the "Rotterdam" sets - the British H2S navigation and bombing radar - used by the pathfinders. In order to pick up a return we had to be within the beam cone of the transmitting aircraft. It was at that point, with the Naxos operating at its greatest range that I saw tiny little blips on the screen at 90 degrees to our direction of flight, far off to the south. I brought this to Becker's attention although he was initially sceptical. Angered at having being lured towards the diversionary raid, he was interested only in returning home as quickly as possible. The aerodrome lay in our path ahead of us. The blinking red light on the Schwanberg could be clearly discerned. I had soon picked up our Gefechtsstand frequency. They informed us that a large bomber formation was heading towards Nuremberg, thus confirming the Naxos returns. We pressed on, but arriving in the vicinity of the city there were no indications whatsoever that this was the objective. Ordinarily the target markers would already have dropped their 'Christmas trees' . The only aircraft dodging the meandering searchlight beams in the mist were our own night fighters. At 3,000 metres altitude I managed to tune into the UKW transmission, plotting the track of the "fat cars" - the enemy bomber formation. In Grid Square TB the bomber stream had swung onto a heading in the direction of square NO. We flew a similar course and before long had picked up the track of the enemy bombers having worked out a heading via the ground station running broadcast " you are in the bomber stream.." Each member of the crew tensely quartered the darkness with eyes peeled or stared hard at the screens of the intercept SN2 and Naxos radar sets. At our altitude the SN2 had an effective range of 3 km but there was nothing to be seen. Intermittently the Naxos showed up tiny blips, indicating that the enemy bombers were ploughing through the skies directly ahead of us. Our 'driver' was somewhat dismissive of these returns. As it later turned out, we had been flying on a north-easterly track parallel to the bomber stream. By now we had the first returns on the SN2, although this could have been the Düppel strips - the aluminium chaff dropped by the British bombers to overwhelm the search radars. Ahead of us the pathfinders were dropping the first target markers while Ofw. Rauch guided us onto a Lancaster with the SN2. The silhouette of the bomber could be clearly seen against the illuminated backdrop of the target area. It loomed off our starboard quarter at lower altitude but couldn't see us as we were coming out of the darkness. As we closed to within 200 metres Becker pulled up the nose of our 'MF' and hammered the first bursts of fire into the black hulk, which immediately lurched steeply down over its port wing streaming a banner of flame. We followed and watched as its cargo of bombs, previously jettisoned, now exploded on the ground. Pieces of debris had flown off the bomber as it plunged down into the void. Moments later a bright burst of flame revealed the point of impact as the bomber smashed into the ground. It was 21h53. I noted our location, altitude and the time. Four pairs of eyes had now to be constantly on the look-out. Fires stoking up the ground and falling incendiaries rendered lighting conditions so bright that there was no longer any need to use our search radar. And although the four engine bombers were no longer shrouded in a cloak of darkness we were also much more visible ourselves. Two pairs of eyes, belonging to Ofw. Brandl and myself, stared hard into the darkness behind us. We zigzagged across the sky, constantly modifying our altitude, in order to make ourselves less of a target for our own flak batteries. Puffs of black smoke – the bursts of exploding shells - were alarmingly close. Suddenly the aircraft’s nose dropped and we were diving down onto a new target. Ahead of us, some 500 metres lower down, Becker had made out another Lancaster. We bore in on the starboard quarter and the great bulk of the bomber was suddenly ablaze, as a burst of fire from our 20mm cannon struck home. The Lancaster pressed on, spraying the sky around us with wild defensive fire from its gun turrets. Now above us and off to the starboard side, we observed some of the crew abandoning the burning machine and taking to their parachutes. We delivered the coup de grâce, a short firing pass from underneath on the port side. In its death throes the Lancaster started to break apart, burning debris tumbling down into the depths, strewing over a wide area as it impacted the ground. I noted the time at 21h59 and our position as MD7. Once again our attention was focused on the night sky around us. The ground station –which we could make out only faintly- was transmitting constantly - agz –LE 4, agz LE 4 - shorthand for ‘Angriffsziel liegt im Planquadrat LE 4’ - enemy objective in Grid Square LE 4. The actual location was of no concern to us at all at that stage - we were already there. Over the intercom the crew exchanged their observations or made sudden interjections as they reacted to our pilot’s unexpected flight manoeuvres. The flight engineer called out; “ ein Schatten in Rolf oben – I can see a shadow off to starboard above us”. All eyes glanced briefly in this direction. Becker had sighted the target and manoeuvred the aircraft into position and flew a firing pass from below on the port quarter. It was 22h03 as this Lancaster also plunged earthwards. It hit the ground in a dazzling explosion, most probably having impacted with its bomb load. Position MD 5. Bombs were still falling in LE4. We considered the so-called Blitzlichtbomben – flash bombs – dropped by the pathfinders, automatically triggering on-board cameras- most annoying. The flash of the detonation blinded us for brief seconds - it could appear an age when you were reliant on being alive to everything around you in the night sky. More so now that things were happened thick and fast. The bombers were coming off the target area. We sighted a Lancaster at lower altitude heading out on a reciprocal course. We curved down in a steep dive to port, levelling out underneath the target and then pulling up to unleash a burst of fire from the lower starboard side. We dipped away to the port side. There was another one! A similar burst from above on the starboard quarter. Both Lancasters fell away in flames and hit the ground at 22h05 and around 22h06 in MD 5. We had to some extent followed them down and had lost altitude. I noted the details and heard the following ground station transmission; ‘Ausflüge von LE 4. Kurs 205 - enemy bombers leaving LE 4..Heading 205’. Becker was furious since his forward-firing cannon were now not all functioning. The circuit breakers had sprung open and the flight engineer was despairingly trying to keep them all pressed in with his fingers. I tried to mollify him; “ trying to keep the buttons in won’t serve any purpose”. We had now swung on to heading 205 and had levelled out at the bombers’ altitude. We were leaving the blazing target area behind us. We wondered which city it might have been but didn’t have time to dwell on it, since all eyes were once again boring into the darkness outside. Finally we picked up a return on the SN2 at much lower altitude. Rauch was relaying his instructions to the Kutscher – the ‘driver’; “Rolf..etwas Rolf …right, right a bit..”- “Frieda, Frieda – descend, descend - Marie 2,5 –etwas Lisa – left a little..” “genau voraus! – directly ahead !”.. “Da!..ich sehe schon ..There!..I can see it already!”. We slid into an attack position, 200 metres to the right and slightly lower than the black hulk. We could now clearly make out its silhouette.. Bluish flames flickered and darted from eight exhaust ejector stubs. It was another Lancaster. Becker eased it into his sights. He gave a short burst of fire. Only a few rounds had been unleashed as his cannon had stop firing. Becker cursed, while Brandl alongside me was at his wits end as the breakers had once again popped open. We flew a second firing pass from the other side once the buttons were in again. Only a few shells had left the barrels before flames leapt from the Lancaster’s wing and fuselage. It went down in a steep spiral, the clock showing 22h15 as it hit the ground. Position approximately ND2.We were still at 2,000 metres. Annoyed at the failure of his weapons, the pilot said; “ that’s enough for today - what’s our course home..?” “205 degrees - the same track as the bombers” I replied. We attempted to get the cannon working again but now they were totally unserviceable. I suggested trying out the Naxos, since we had time - plenty of it - and were flying on the same course as the bombers heading homewards. There had thus far been only limited experience with the set and few attempts to utilise its capabilities to home in on aircraft using the Rotterdamgerät (H2S). There were a good number of intermittent returns on the 'tubes'. I concentrated my attention on the strongest of these and gave the pilot instructions accordingly. He had to climb for altitude. We closed gradually, latched on to the cone-shaped beam array pulsing from the rotating transmitter on the bomber's belly. There! Radar operator Rauch had a return on the SN2 and took over the intercept. At a range of about 500 metres we both spotted two four engine bombers, some 100 metres above us. We slowly edged in nearer. Over the intercom we discussed how we should proceed. The forward-firing armament was unserviceable. We couldn't just let these enemy kites get away scot-free. They ploughed on doggedly, now and again making slight changes in altitude. It occurred to me - since it was right in front of my eyes - that I had at my disposal the radio operator’s MG 131 Z twin machine-guns, pointing rearwards and vertically. They were cocked and ready to fire. We were all agreed that I should attempt to use them. However this meant that the target had to be behind and above us - in such a position that our pilot would no longer be able to see it. So it would be up to me to guide the pilot so that he could fly the enemy bomber into my arc of fire. This meant descending much lower under the bomber. It all sounded relatively straightforward in theory. In the heat of the moment and the tension and excitement and the fact that we were sitting back to back meant that it took a while - and several Rolfs-Lisas, Siegfrieds and Friedas - to manoeuvre the bomber into the gunsight and into a position where I could squeeze the trigger. The target was as huge as a house. I aimed for the starboard inner engine and wing root. I fired an initial burst that immediately caused the weapon to jam. I cleared the stoppage and gave him a burst of tracer, some of which buried itself in the target. In my headphones I heard, "Its on fire!". We peeled away to starboard and watched as the Lancaster went down in a steep spiral trailing a banner of flame. I noted the time, 23h00, and our position, TA4, with trembling hands. Where had the second bomber disappeared? We had lost height. The MG had been reloaded and was ready to fire - the last salvo had been curtailed by a stoppage. I could still see the same strong returns in the Naxos. This appeared to indicate that we had caught two aircraft that were not using their Rotterdam sets (H2S). We re-played the intercept and closing approach with the Naxos and SN2. Once again Beckermanoeuvred in accordance with my instructions despite not being able to see the enemy machine. On this occasion we got in somewhat closer. I could see the turbochargers on the four engines glowing red. The enemy crate droned on serenely a little off to starboard and about 200 metres above me. It was now easier to draw a bead on the port inboard engine and wing root. I set it on fire with the first burst. I gave it anotherburst before the Lancaster went down streaming bright flames, impacting the ground at 23h15 in BU1. The tension started to recede. We were still heading on the same course as the bombers lumbering homewards. There was no longer any interference on any of the channels. All the bombers were now heading out away from the target area. Our ground controllers transmitted messages of congratulations, while reporting that there were still potential targets in close proximity. Both of us radar operators concentrated our attentions back on the scopes. There were a number of faint blips on the Naxos screen. Adjusting the resolution, I concentrated on the strongest echo and gave my instructions. We flew an approach but were far too low. As we had to climb to the bomber's altitude we managed to make up the distance separating us from the target only slowly. Suddenly the SN2 showed a target echo as it moved out from the ground traces and after changes of track Becker caught sight of a four engine bomber some distance ahead of us. Once again it was up to me guide us into the target. I called out instructions, imagining the pilot's discomfiture as he manoeuvred blindly into position in accordance with my commands, waiting with pent-up tension until he finally heard the clatter of the machine guns. We hadn't encountered any defensive fire up to that point, although the tail gunners sprayed unaimed salvos from their turrets. Who could have expected to come under attack from the front and at lower altitude. The bomber was some 200 metres above us on the starboard quarter as the first burst of fire from the MG 131 Z struck home in the inboard engine and wing leading edge. I could see only the glow of tiny flames licking around the wing. Again a burst of tracer fire buried itself in the target. The bomber veered off course and was suddenly heading towards us. We moved aside and while banked over on one wingtip I loosed off another burst. The machine started to spiral down in wide circles. It did not have the twin tail fin and rudders of a Lancaster nor did it resemble a Short Stirling. It was a B-17 Flying Fortress, the first one we'd encountered on a night raid. Although it was soon swallowed up by the darkness we set off in pursuit. The fire was increasing in intensity, illuminating the night. We could see some of the crew taking to their parachutes. The Boeing went down in circles over its burning wing before suddenly slamming into an area of snow-covered, wooded mountainside. The time was 23h37. This was the ninth occasion that night that we had reported in to the ground station with a 'Sieg Heil' (enemy aircraft downed) following the ritual 'Pauke Pauke' (we are attacking). We now turned on a course for home. Where were we exactly? The ground station reported that we were in square CR somewhere over the Schwarzwald-the Black Forest and gave us a heading for Kitzingen. Our 'MF' had performed well and had already been airborne for some three and a half hours. We didn't have enough fuel for the 200km back to base. However Schwäbisch Hall lay en route. We discussed the events of the previous hours over the intercom. We'd rather lost track of how many enemy aircraft we had downed. We’d received congratulations for nine victories from the controller - that must have been the case then. We had difficulty raising Schwäbisch Hall on the radio although we could see the airfield lighting up ahead. The airfield finally came on the frequency and in response to our request to land indicated that the runway was blocked following an earlier crash landing. There was no possibility of putting down there. What next? The nearest airfield where we might be able to land was Groß-Sachsenheim, north of Stuttgart. We swung back on our tracks. We knew that this aerodrome had recently come under attack and that the landing strip was restricted as a consequence. The ground station confirmed again that this was indeed the case. We flew a circuit and then came in. We touched down a little late along the runway already shortened by bomb craters - it was simply not long enough for our run-out. We braked so heavily that the tail came off the ground. There was an almighty clattering and crashing as if we’d run through some potholes, before the aircraft finally came to a stand. It was a case of magnetos off and get out!. Our ‘MF’ had overrun the strip and ended up in a neighbouring meadow. Ofw. Brandl – flying with us as the fourth crew member but ordinarily in charge of technical operations on the ground for the entire Gruppe – soon had our kite hauled out of the mud. There was much backslapping and cheering when we entered the command post. We could barely get our reports written. We celebrated with the odd glass of champagne. Berlin called up on the phone; “ notable experiences with the Naxos were of particular interest and had to be relayed to all crews ”. The excitement gradually abated and we were soon longing for some shut-eye. Yet we couldn’t go to sleep. We’d landed at 00h20 but it wasn’t until 04h05 that we were given the green light to get airborne for our return home. We touched down at Kitzingen at 04h38 after an eventful night’s flying.."

JG 300 Wilde Sau - Hubert Engst, Ernst Schröder, Walther Dahl, Klaus Bretschneider, Gerhard Stamp Fw 190 Sturmbock

Hubert Engst (6./JG300) climbing up into the cockpit of his armoured Sturmbock Fw 190 in early 1945 (click on the pic for a larger image - photo via Lorant). Another view of 'Yellow 2' below

 I worked with Jean-Yves Lorant and Richard Goyat on the production and translation of their two-volume history of Jagdgeschwader 300 and still count Jean-Yves and Richard as good friends. I was subsequently able to contact a number of JG 300 veterans and received their accounts and photographs directly. 'Timo' Schenk who served with I./JG 300 during 1944-45 and flew the Me 262 with JG 7 at the end, especially insisted on writing some of his pieces in rather poor English. Ernst Schröder was another vet who wrote to me directly, although he had already responded to an earlier article that I had published in Scale Aircraft Modelling. This is my translation of his account of his first combat sortie, 8 August 1944.

"...Takeoff from Holzkirchen at 10:45. As I was untested in combat, I had been designated to fly as number two, or wingman to Fahnenjunker-Oberfeldwebel Richard Löfgen, who was leading our Sturmgruppe on this sortie. I therefore found myself at the controls of “Red 12” flying in the lead Schwarm. The Gruppe had been able to put a good twenty or so Fw 190s in the air. The weather was fine, the sky virtually cloudless.I recall that we were airborne for quite some time, reaching a height of more than 6,000 meters, which meant that we had to clip on our oxygen masks. Changes of track relayed by Jagddivision (Döberitz?) came loud and clear over the frequency. Finally, after flying for an hour and a half, we were informed that the “fat cars” would soon be in sight. I kept a constant look out, in so far as I was able while maintaining position as the number 2 to the Verbandsführer. We were flying the typical close-knit — and quite restrictive — formation characteristic of the Sturmgruppen. It was imperative to keep station. For an instant I caught sight of a contrail at much higher altitude. It was impossible to know if this was a friendly aircraft or not. It wasn’t long before the information and the orders being transmitted over the radio became more insistent: “You should be able to see the fat cars!”Suddenly I saw our prize: 25 or 30 B 17 bombers, a little off to the right in an oblique line that was as straight as a die, five hundred meters below us. Most of them had a bare-metal aluminium finish, others were camouflaged. On their current track they would cut across our path. It was like watching a gigantic aerial flypast. I instinctively made myself small in the cockpit, imagining, in my fervor as an unfledged fighter pilot, that they had seen us and that hundreds of machine guns were about to open up on us! But nothing of the sort happened and the Americans plowed on below us, unperturbed by our presence. What a majestic sight these enormous aircraft were as they streamed their mostly long trails of condensation behind them.For a moment I wondered why Löfgen had not wheeled down and around to the right to attack them in a dive. And then I realized… bloody hell! Another “Mahalla” was heading towards us, at a slightly higher altitude than the previous formation. Once again we let these bombers pass by below us. I immediately caught sight of a third box, flying more or less at our own altitude. Stretching way back into the distance were yet more boxes of bombers one behind the other, specks that took on the appearance of a swarm of gnats…Suddenly all hell broke loose. The terse order “jettison drop tanks!” came through the earphones, and in the second that followed, numerous pale blue auxiliary tanks went tumbling down into the void. Löfgen had just peeled away, bunting over to the right and was diving between the box of Flying Fortresses that had just gone past below us and the following box which was looming — menacingly — ever larger. I tightened my turn a little to keep close to our number one. I now kept my eyes fixed on him, which meant that I couldn’t watch what was happening around us. Then, exactly 1,500 meters ahead of us, I counted 25 B 17s. Despite being well out of range at this enormous distance, their gunners opened up. The sky was suddenly streaked with thousands of sparkling pearls. Or at least this is how the tracers appeared in the dazzling blue sky. I was instantly reminded of the games that we played as children in our garden and how my brother Helmut would love to try and turn the water hose on me! Thousands of bright, sparkling drops just seconds from sluicing down on me. But I could only throw the briefest of glances forward, forced to keep station on Löfgen’s wing, and anxious, above anything else, not to collide with him.Another order came over the radio: “Pauke, Pauke, auf sieee, Rabazanella!” I had to pick out a bomber immediately. I quickly switched on the gunsight and flicked off the armament safety switch. I almost forgot in my excitement! It was then that I felt intense fear, expecting to be hit at any moment. My bomber was still a respectable distance away, his wings not yet filling the graticule of my Revi. I shot a glance to my left. Löfgen had already opened up, all guns blazing. The Boeing rapidly loomed large in my sight and I opened fire. I saw several flashes up ahead. Were these the impacts of my shells or the gunners returning fire? It was impossible to tell. There were more flashes in the tail gunner’s position and on the rudder. This time my bursts had clearly raked him. The great bulk of the “thing” had assumed imposing proportions, it was time to break off. But how, above or underneath? I unleashed a final salvo, and for a fraction of a second, thought I glimpsed the fuselage ablaze. The tail gunner’s compartment appeared enormous. I rammed the stick forward, flashing past underneath the bomber, pulling negative Gs as I rolled several times while diving headlong before taking stock of what was happening around me. A short while prior to the attack I had seen a very large city off on my starboard side, which from a height of 8,000 meters was laid out like the pattern on an antique ornamental carpet. This could only have been the capital of the Reich — Berlin. Consequently there would be numerous airfields in the area.The constant craning back and forth, to and fro, as I surveyed the sky all around me, had started to make my neck hurt. There was not a single aircraft, either friendly or enemy, in my field of vision. It was time to ease my 190 out of its crazy plunge earthwards. By the time I had leveled out, my altimeter was indicating around 800 meters. There was a rail track ahead of me and a completely empty sky all around!The pressure in my ears, that had built up as I plummeted down, gradually eased and I could hear the roar of my engine again. There were no untoward indications on any of my gauges. I reduced my throttle setting while continuing to keep a careful look out. Above me, the contrails appeared far away. I let down to a height of 150 meters, following the rail line. The red low fuel warning light now flashed up on my instrument panel. I had to quickly locate an airfield. I eventually came to a large town. I pulled up into a quick chandelle and shot a glance all around… still nothing behind me. I was then relieved to make out an airfield up ahead of me. As I overflew it I could see that I was flying parallel with the landing axis as indicated by the cross on the ground. I banked my fighter over, wisps of condensation briefly appearing at my wingtips. Moving away from the field I curved around in a 180° turn over the town, letting down my undercarriage and selecting flaps to come in on a long final. I let down towards the cross, noted that there was a little crosswind and felt the controls suddenly go a little slack. I was still 50 meters above the ground and the airfield was still some way off — about 1,500 meters — and I had to open up the throttle a little. Suddenly I thought I was seeing things: ahead of me there was a succession of flashes and violent detonations and an enormous cloud of smoke. The airfield was literally exploding! I rammed open the throttle, retracted gear and flaps, and yanked the aircraft around in a tight turn to port to put some distance between this hell and myself. Hugging the ground I headed back along the rail line. I kept a careful look out, especially on my tail. Still nothing but the rail track. The red warning light was now permanently illuminated on my instrument panel. I had only ten minutes more flying time before the propeller juddered and quit without any further warning. Was I likely to find an airfield in time or should I select a field to belly in on?Precious minutes ticked by. My neck was really hurting by now. I throttled back to conserve gas. Finally a town appeared. Where was the airfield, where? Was that it back over there? I pulled up a little, selecting gear and flaps down, quickly retrimmed, adjusting the horizontal stabilizer, side slipping, then easing up the nose into the flare… the runway appeared in front of me. I could not make out the usual landing cross but that was hardly important any more. I rounded out, skimming over the ground. There was a bump and then the aircraft was running out and I began to apply the brakes. The airfield appeared strangely deserted. I could see no signs of human activity. Suddenly, someone dashed out from under cover, gesticulating skywards… Realisation dawned. I cut the engine. My propeller came to a standstill. I slid back the canopy and scrambled down from my 190. The air was filled with a deafening noise. I could have cried… From over on the other side of the airfield, there was a thunderous booming of detonating explosions, the ground shook and thick palls of smoke rose up into the sky. I flattened myself in the grass. Would the next salvo hit us? The sky reverberated with the drone of engines as the enemy formations overflew the airfield. I was expecting the next salvo of bombs at any moment.We had enormous good fortune. On the side of the airfield where I found myself, I could see — not too far away — stocks of fuel, their placards bearing the designations “Me” and “Fw”. As luck would have it we were spared. The American’s bombing lacked precision; only the barracks were hit on the airfield, which by the way, was Stendal. I think the previous aerodrome I’d attempted to land at was Brandenburg "

The 17 Messerschmitts of I./JG 300, airborne from Bad Wörishofen at 10:45, had assembled with II./JG 300 over Augsburg. At 12:05 they attempted to close on two boxes of Boeing B-17s south-west of Berlin. At 12:09, several German pilots reported over the radio that an assault by the Mustangs was imminent. Moments later a free-for-all had developed. For ten minutes Messerschmitts and Focke-Wulfs wheeled around with the P-51s of the 20th FG. Combats spiraled down to low level. II./JG 300 lost nine aircraft and four pilots all told in the days operations. Unteroffiziere Erich Voit, Franz Klein, Robert Janssen and Gfr. Heinz Nowarra crashed at the controls of their Focke-Wulf 190s, having fallen victim to the Mustangs and the Fortresses. Ofw. Richard Löfgen bailed out slightly wounded not far from Brandenburg.Fw. Alfons Zeder (2. Staffel) claimed the destruction of a bomber, that he identified as being a B-17, over Rathenow. Uffz. Heinz Wischhöfer (1. Staffel) flew two passes at a Boeing B 17 at 4,000 meters altitude that had fallen behind on three engines south of Berlin. Surprised at the enemy gunners failure to react, Wischhöfer believed that the bomber had already been abandoned by its crew. Then at 12:27, four parachutes mushroomed open in the wake of the Boeing as it went into a slow spin. It exploded 2,000 meters from the ground above a layer of strato-cumulus. Wischhöfer landed at Jüterbog-altes Lager at 12:50. Fhr. Otto Leisner (1. Staffel), who had taken off from Bad Wörishofen at 10:45 in Bf 109 G 6 “Red 18”, barely survived this sortie;

"..South-west of Berlin, I sighted 10 or 12 Mustangs at about 9,000 meters altitude. It was a very ill-matched combat... My engine and my oil tank were riddled with bullets. My canopy and more especially the windshield were coated in a film of oil leaving me with only limited visibility to the rear through the plate armor glass protecting my head. I shoved the stick forward, brutally plunging downwards and soon saw no more than two Mustangs behind my ship. As I watched them close to a firing position, I transformed my dive into a slewing maneuver, sideslipping and turning or suddenly throttling back. Each time I took power off they swept past my crate, their momentum causing them to overshoot. Finally I went into a cloud. I had to make the most of this by bailing out. Therefore I tried to get rid of my canopy but unfortunately it refused to come free. I drew my pistol and fired several shots through the Plexiglas. I was counting on the slipstream to tear the hood off, thanks to the holes left by the bullets. I crossed the controls, applying rudder and opposite aileron, sideslipping at an oblique angle. The canopy did not budge a centimeter. The only thing left to do was to continue this blind descent. Very quickly my two brightly colored pursuers displaying what looked like sharks teeth markings on their olive green fuselages reappeared. Several seconds later, I put my 109 down in a potato field in front of some houses in the village of Liebsdorf. I scrambled out of my “Red 18” as rapidly as I could and started to run for the cover of the nearest thicket. The two Mustangs came back around at low level. The rattling of their machine-guns drowned out the thumping of my heart. I flattened myself on the ground. They were strafing me as much as the aircraft. I was still wearing my all too visible yellow life jacket. They wanted to finish me off. This yellow garb made me an excellent target. Seconds later I had got rid of it, hurling it as far away from myself as possible. I started to run again. The Amis came in for a second pass, then the thundering roar of their engines receded. They seemed to have gone for good. I picked myself up, then went looking for my life jacket. It had been holed by several bullet strikes. A little further off, my Messerschmitt was burning like a torch.."

The Stabschwarm of JG 300, led by Maj. Dahl, did not make visual contact with the enemy. Having suffered a radio failure, the Kommodore had decided to turn for home. His wingmen followed him. It was their responsibility to protect Walther Dahl, whatever happened. They landed at Bad Wörishofen at 11:10. Seconded just the previous day to the Geschwaderstab, Uffz. Hans Reinartz was summoned after landing to report to the Kommodore. Both he and his comrades were lectured in no uncertain terms. They were torn off a strip for having broken off the sortie to chaperone Maj. Dahl in a sector where there was zero enemy aerial activity. Dahl explained to his pilots that they should have joined the other Schwärme and mounted an attack on the Americans over the target. The instruction “protect the Kommodore come what may” had suddenly become “attack the four-engine bombers at all costs”… ( )

Jagdgeschwader Wilde 300 Sau: A Chronicle of a Fighter Geschwader in the Battle for Germany, Vol. 2: September 1944-May 1945… by Jean-Yves Lorant. Translated by Neil Page

(text extract - my translation)

On 24 January 1945, the sky partially cleared over the Eastern Front. At daybreak a start was made on allocating pilots to the various Schwärme. From 09:30 sortie followed sortie as aircraft were dispatched in increasing tempo from Liegnitz, Schönfeld-Seifersdorf and Lüben. Soviet columns pushing through the sector Steinau-Ostrowo-Rawitsch were machine-gunned with varying results by the pilots of JG 300, still hampered by persistent freezing fog. Lt. Friedrich-Wilhelm “Timo” Schenk, at the controls of his Bf 109 G 10 “Red 5”, was leading a Schwarm from 2. Staffel;

".. Free hunt against all enemy targets. Weather conditions were still relatively poor, horizontal visibility left something to be desired. We were implementing a new tactic. The Schwarmführer no longer flew as number 1, but henceforth as the number 4. In this way he would be better able to direct the Schwarm and would be less likely to lose his bearings should he suffer a loss of engine revs or be hindered by any other factor. We flew towards the enemy positions at about 2,000 meters above ground level. Fog partially shrouded the snow-covered landscape. We quickly reached the village of Trachenberg, about thirty kilometers north of Breslau. This time the Soviet’s presence was evident. In the long main street we saw men on horseback and numerous horsedrawn wagons. We pressed on, flying away until we were out of sight of the new occupants of Trachenberg. Then we wheeled down and around, spacing out until there was at least 400 meters between each Messerschmitt. Once at tree top height we reduced our throttle settings and executed a wide sweep that brought us directly in towards Trachenberg. As soon as the village appeared ahead of us, we pulled up quickly to 250 meters before thundering down on the main street. In front of us a few seconds later was our target: teams of horsedrawn caravans, horses, soldiers in brownish-gray uniforms drawn up in ranks as if on parade. The horses panicked and bolted while their drivers attempted to bring them under control… and there was instant hell and pandemonium! Just seconds later, we came around on a second firing run. I no longer recall whether we flew a third pass. With our ammunition magazines empty, we streaked off at full power in the direction of Liegnitz. On landing we were refueled and re-armed. We took off on a second sortie.."

At 10:30, II./JG 300 put its first Schwarm in the air from Schönfeld-Seifersdorf: five Focke-Wulfs of 5. Staffel and the Gruppenstab flown by Fhj.-Ofw. Richard Löfgen, Maj. Alfred Lindenberger, Ofw. Karl Rusack, Uffz. Walter Beuchel and Uffz. Karl Werner. Leading the Schwarm, Löfgen brought his small force down to 500 meters altitude as they arrived over the front. Having once overflown the Oder, the pilots were unable to discern the slightest sign of enemy activity. Having flown for several minutes over territory that was in theory now in the hands of the Soviets, Ofw. Löfgen throttled back and flew a series of wide weaving curves. The Russians had infiltrated woods and villages everywhere, yet there was nothing to betray their presence. In the skies the enemy air force was nowhere to be seen. Racked by all sorts of doubts, the German pilots knew that they would soon have to turn back, their fuel reserves diminishing rapidly. Ten minutes later, the Focke-Wulf 190s flew over two wrecked farms that were still burning. Suddenly, just as Ofw. Rusack made out the town of Steinau and the river Oder in the distance, a string of tracers flitted through the air around the German fighters. The gunfire was coming from a wood bisected by a small road. With the target thus revealed, Löfgen swept down towards it in a shallow dive. The forest road was teeming with enemy vehicles, drawn up tightly in columns that stretched back some four kilometers! The Focke-Wulfs moved away widening their sweep towards the east, Löfgen attempting to dupe the Soviets into thinking they had avoided an attack. The Schwarm turned hard to starboard and was now at a height of fifty meters. Gunsights were switched on and the pilots scoured the landscape to pick out the forest road. Sure of their bearings the Sturmböcke bore down on the road spitting long volleys of fire. As they pulled up and wheeled around for a second firing run, several vehicles were already in flames. More fires and a violent explosion were observed after the second pass. Despite a wall of light anti-aircraft fire, the Fw 190s bore down a third time, the stabbing flashes of their exploding shells igniting more fires. Ofw. Karl Rusack (5. Staffel) never forget the spectacle that unfolded beneath him;

" In the space of a few seconds we were drawing very dense anti-aircraft fire. We disregarded it. Only our tracers and shells exploding into the enemy tanks and vehicles counted for anything. Numerous columns of black smoke rose into the misty sky. More trucks and tanks that would go no further on German territory. The Soviets were putting up a furious fight. As I came in on my last pass, I could see a Russian soldier standing in a field. He had put his rifle to his shoulder to aim and was about to open fire, if he had not already done so! He had seen our five fighters armed with cannon and machine guns but appeared not to have been at all disconcerted. In that situation, any one of us would have flung himself to the ground... One last time our aircraft shuddered as our guns hammered out their salvos. With a deft touch on the rudder bar I was able for a brief moment to ease the pathetic human silhouette into my sight. A short burst and then I pulled up sharply to avoid a tree. The ground was very close. The Russian had taken to his heels to evade my fire. As I looked over, I was astounded to see that he was now taking pot shots at me. What were we to think of an enemy that acted like this? We landed at Schönfeld-Seifersdorf fifteen minutes later. Two of our aircraft had taken hits from the Russian flak. More of a fright than anything else. My “Red 10” was intact. As I unbuckled my parachute I could see my comrades of the Schwarm on alert line up in turn into the wind. This ballet of sorties lasted up until about 15:00.."

At 11:35, seven Focke-Wulfs of 5. Staffel taxiied out from their dispersals: two Schwärme led by Oblt. Heinz-Dieter Gramberg and Uffz. Ernst Schröder. The latter was leading three Fw 190s that were tasked with top cover to ward off any enemy fighter attacks. Gramberg and his three wingmen were slated to attack ground targets. The Focke-Wulfs lifted off at 11:40 and roared through the sky at low altitude towards Steinau. They skirted round this town, passing less than one kilometer to the south of it and a few moments later had crossed the front line. Over the village of Trachenberg, Uffz. Ernst Schröder saw Gramberg’s Schwarm start to orbit at 500 meters altitude. The new Staffelführer of 5./JG 300 had seen vehicles in the streets below and was attempting to identify them. Three hundred meters above, Ernst Schröder and his two wingmen started to circle. Uffz. Schröder later related what happened next;

" As we were flying three hundred meters higher than our comrades, we could barely make out any details on the ground. That was not our role in any event. I saw Gramberg’s “Red 2” dive down on the village, followed by his wingmen. It seemed evident that our comrades had identified their targets. Their prinicpal quarry, as I realized a few seconds later, was a Russian truck mounting a quadruple machine gun arrangement. Despite the four Fw 190s bearing down on them, the Soviets immediately opened fire. Our Staffelführer’s aircraft was hit. Gramberg nonetheless managed to pull up his Focke-Wulf some fifty meters or so above the road and to bail out. He was unfortunately far too low. The parachute did not have the time to deploy… Our comrade plunged down and smashed into a house on the outskirts of the village! His Focke-Wulf exploded as it crashed in the center of the village a few hundred meters further off. Meanwhile Gramberg’s wingmen had opened up on the truck with the anti-aircraft flak mount, which now ceased firing. My two comrades and I swept down in turn, all guns blazing at the Soviet vehicles, some of which were now in flames. Our MG 151 and MK 108 cannon just ripped through them in terrifying and spectacular fashion. What I saw in the few seconds that I was over this street left a lasting impression on me. We broke off the action and set course back to Schönfeld-Seifersdorf. It was self evident that Oberleutnant Gramberg, who was listed missing for a number of hours, had undoubtedly lost his life in the course of this sortie. Nobody could hope to survive such a fall. Gramberg was moreover one of the rare officer-pilots in our Gruppe to make no secret of his openly National Socialist political opinions. He would make blatant attempts to deny the reality of our impending defeat, forcing the mechanics of 5. Staffel to take part in military drill between sorties... in order to maintain good levels of discipline and to prepare them for some final combat or other. He was not greatly missed ."

Two further II. Gruppe Schwärme took off at 12:55. Ofw. Rudi Zwesken (6. Staffel) led them once again over Trachenberg, which was visible from a distance in the snow-covered landscape as a result of the fires that had been started on the preceding mission. This last attack mounted by II. Gruppe was a complete success. About twenty motorized and horse-drawn vehicles were destroyed along with two armored cars and one tank. On this occasion the pilots had run in and released 250 kg bombs taken from stocks destined to be dropped by their Schlachtflieger comrades. This last sortie flown by II./JG 300 ended without loss, but at around 16:00 it was learnt that Ofw. August Saarholz (6. Staffel) had just been killed ferrying a Fw 190 A 8 from Breslau to Schönfeld-Seifersdorf.The third — and perhaps last — II. Gruppe sortie flown that day was mounted at 15:25. Uffz. Ernst Schröder, flying “Red 20”, had to turn back following a malfunctioning BMW regulating unit and returned to Schönfeld-Seifersdorf, where he landed at 15:50.Throughout the day of 24 January 1945 the pilots of JG 300 flew missions almost continually. At the start of the afternoon, Messerschmitts of I. Gruppe destroyed around ten vehicles and a Soviet observation aircraft near Rawitsch without loss.III. Gruppe was equally very active over the Wielun-Ostrowo-Krotoschin-Rawitsch sector. Hptm. Fritz Lonzius (11. Staffel) led off a Schwarm at 10:01 — the first of a long series. His wingman, Fw. Hansotto Nehls, never forgot the subsequent turn of events on his first sortie on the Eastern Front;

" Airborne from Lüben at the controls of Messerschmitt Bf 109 G 10 “Green 16”. During this sortie we could see large convoys of civilians fleeing ahead of the enemy advance. We quickly realized that Russian army vehicles, including tanks, had infiltrated the refugee columns as a defence against aerial attacks. This was a crude ruse but one to which we had no answer, since we could not for one minute consider opening fire on Russian vehicles which were surrounded by German women and children! At the head of one column, I even saw several women waving pieces of white rag to clearly identify themselves. I cut across this road at right angles at a height of just twenty meters and caught a brief glimpse of enemy soldiers training their weapons in our direction from in among the midst of our civilians. I can still recall my astonishment and even admiration for one man I saw holding the reins of a harness. He was watching over his animals, calmly smoking a pipe as our Messerschmitts thundered overhead. He did not move although he could hardly have had any indications as to what our intentions were! Had he decided he could ignore the threat fom the skies or was he simply demonstrating exceptional coolness? Like a snapshot I can still recall the fleeting glimpse I caught of this untroubled silhouette. We came into land at Lüben at 11:15. Hauptmann Lonzius immediately gathered us together and questioned us. He wanted to know exactly what each one of us had seen. After listening to what we told him, he immediately ordered another sortie and we were airborne again at 14:30. Shortly having overflown the Oder, we were greeted by Soviet flak. Lonzius led us a few minutes later over the spot where that morning we had flown over the enemy tanks and trucks hidden in among the refugee caravan. This time the road was deserted… as was the entire region over a ten kilometer radius! Finally we saw evidence of the presence of Soviet troops towards the Oder-Lissa, near Steinau. We made low level strafing runs on numerous trucks and tanks before heading back to Lüben, where we touched down at 15:22."

The Messerschmitts of IV./JG 300 flew two sorties (11:05 and 15:15) for no losses during the course of the day. Having flown their offensive sweeps against Red Army columns and vehicles, the pilots of III. and IV./JG 300 returned to Lüben with the actions of the Soviet infantrymen under fire very much in their minds. The fact that they had stood and returned fire at the Messerschmitts with rifles and automatic weapons instead of seeking cover had proved something of a revelation. The Bf 109 G 10 “White 6” of Fhr. Horst Vogt (10. Staffel) was damaged in a collision with a Junkers 52 at Lüben. There was no loss of life.During the evening, conflicting news about the capture of Steinau by the Soviets circulated around Lüben, Liegnitz and Schönfeld-Seifersdorf, news which served to demoralize the men of JG 300. At Lüben, women working in the kitchens and administrative services started to abandon their posts to join the refugee columns pushing westwards. As the situation descended into chaos, the airfield quickly became untenable. Towards dusk a message from the Wehrmacht announced that Lüben would be directly threatened by the Red Army during the course of the next forty-eight hours. Lt. Willi Rühl (14. Staffel) wrote in his diary; " Talked with the cleaning ladies in our billet. They are all in a fearful panic and wondering how on earth they are going to escape from this place… Everyone is telling the most terrible stories of atrocities committed by the Bolshevik soldiers. The people streaming past on the roads also peddle tales of acts of savagery that are just as alarming..".